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Protein Structure – Properties of Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

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Introduction Proteins are polymers of amino acids. The biosynthesis of proteins occurs in every living cell at some point...

Cell Inclusions in Bacteria

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Introduction Cell inclusions are prokaryotic organelles, not bound by any unit membrane. These are collections of materials or sites...

Regulation of Breathing and Respiratory Rhythm

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Introduction The nervous system normally adjusts the rate of alveolar ventilation almost exactly to the demands of the body...

Thyroid Gland— Synthesis and Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones

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Introduction The thyroid gland, located immediately below the larynx on each side of and anterior to the trachea, is...

Nodal Tissue and Rhythmic Excitation of Heart

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Introduction The human heart has a special system for rhythmic self-excitation and repetitive contraction approximately 100,000 times each day,...

Agaricus – Structure, Reproduction and Life Cycle

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Introduction The order Agaricales includes 197 genera and 4,000 species. Most of the species are saprophytic, growing on dead...

Genome Imprinting – Maternal and Paternal Imprinting

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Introduction Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a 'parent-of-origin' specific manner.

Understanding ECG and The Cardiac Cycle

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Introduction The cardiac cycle refers to a complete heartbeat from its generation to the beginning of the next beat,...

Chromosomal Disorders – Aneuploidy, Euploidy and Chromosomal Aberrations

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Introduction Chromosome abnormalities (alterations that are large enough to be seen under the microscope) are responsible for a significant...

The Species-Area Curve

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What is the Species-Area Relationship Curve? The Species-Area curve is a graphical representation of species richness or number of...